Quick Answer: What Is The Functional Group Of DNA?

What is the functional group of nucleotides?

A single nucleotide is composed of three functional groups: a sugar, a triphosphate, and a nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) base, as shown below.

Note that in the figures drawn in this unit, each unlabeled vertex of a structure represents a carbon atom..

What are 5 differences between DNA and RNA?

DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, while RNA contains the sugar ribose. … DNA and RNA base pairing is slightly different since DNA uses the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine; RNA uses adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine. Uracil differs from thymine in that it lacks a methyl group on its ring.

Is RNA synthesized 5 to 3?

The RNA is always synthesized in the 5′ → 3′ direction (Figures 10-10 and 10-11), with nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) acting as substrates for the enzyme.

What does 3 and 5 DNA mean?

The 5′ and 3′ mean “five prime” and “three prime”, which indicate the carbon numbers in the DNA’s sugar backbone. The 5′ carbon has a phosphate group attached to it and the 3′ carbon a hydroxyl (-OH) group. This asymmetry gives a DNA strand a “direction”.

Which structure is on the 3 end?

The 3′-end (three prime end) of a strand is so named due to it terminating at the hydroxyl group of the third carbon in the sugar-ring, and is known as the tail end.

How do we read DNA?

The instructions stored within DNA are read and processed by a cell in two steps: transcription and translation. Each of these steps is a separate biochemical process involving multiple molecules. During transcription, a portion of the cell’s DNA serves as a template for creation of an RNA molecule.

Why does DNA polymerase go from 5 to 3?

Since DNA polymerase requires a free 3′ OH group for initiation of synthesis, it can synthesize in only one direction by extending the 3′ end of the preexisting nucleotide chain. Hence, DNA polymerase moves along the template strand in a 3’–5′ direction, and the daughter strand is formed in a 5’–3′ direction.

Is phosphate a functional group?

Phosphate group: A functional group characterized by a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms (three single bonds and one double bond).

Is DNA a polymerase?

DNA polymerase is an enzyme that synthesizes DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. … DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the three prime end of a DNA strand one nucleotide at a time. When a cell divides, DNA polymerases are needed so that the cell’s DNA can duplicate.

What are two DNA functions?

DNA serves two important cellular functions: It is the genetic material passed from parent to offspring and it serves as the information to direct and regulate the construction of the proteins necessary for the cell to perform all of its functions.

What is the role of functional groups?

In organic chemistry, a functional group is a specific group of atoms or bonds within a compound that is responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of that compound. The same functional group will behave in a similar fashion, by undergoing similar reactions, regardless of the compound of which it is a part.

What is DNA What is its function?

DNA structure and function. DNA is the information molecule. It stores instructions for making other large molecules, called proteins. These instructions are stored inside each of your cells, distributed among 46 long structures called chromosomes.

Are DNA and RNA functional groups?

DNA lacks the ribose and contains a hydrogen atom at that position, hence the name, “deoxy” ribonucleic acid whereas RNA has a hydroxyl functional group at that position. DNA and RNA are made up of monomers known as nucleotides. Individual nucleotides condense with one another other to form a nucleic acid polymer.

Do you read DNA from 5 to 3?

5′ – 3′ direction refers to the orientation of nucleotides of a single strand of DNA or RNA. … DNA is always read in the 5′ to 3′ direction, and hence you would start reading from the free phosphate and finish at the free hydroxyl group.

What does 3 mean in DNA?

Each end of DNA molecule has a number. One end is referred to as 5′ (five prime) and the other end is referred to as 3′ (three prime). The 5′ and 3′ designations refer to the number of carbon atom in a deoxyribose sugar molecule to which a phosphate group bonds.

Is RNA the same as DNA?

There are two differences that distinguish DNA from RNA: (a) RNA contains the sugar ribose, while DNA contains the slightly different sugar deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom), and (b) RNA has the nucleobase uracil while DNA contains thymine.

What are the 3 types of DNA?

There are three different DNA types:A-DNA: It is a right-handed double helix similar to the B-DNA form. … B-DNA: This is the most common DNA conformation and is a right-handed helix. … Z-DNA: Z-DNA is a left-handed DNA where the double helix winds to the left in a zig-zag pattern.

What functional group is at the 3 end of the DNA?

hydroxyl groupAs new nucleotides are added to a strand of DNA or RNA, the strand grows at its 3′ end, with the 5′ phosphate of an incoming nucleotide attaching to the hydroxyl group at the 3′ end of the chain. This makes a chain with each sugar joined to its neighbors by a set of bonds called a phosphodiester linkage.

What is difference between DNA and RNA?

The DNA is a double-stranded molecule that has a long chain of nucleotides. The RNA is a single-stranded molecule which has a shorter chain of nucleotides. DNA replicates on its own, it is self-replicating. RNA does not replicate on its own.

What are the 3 functions of DNA?

DNA now has three distinct functions—genetics, immunological, and structural—that are widely disparate and variously dependent on the sugar phosphate backbone and the bases.

What are the functional groups in proteins?

Proteins contain a wide range of functional groups. These functional groups include alcohols, thiols, thioethers, carboxylic acids, carboxamides, and a variety of basic groups.